El Abolicionismo del Derecho Penal

‘’ La sanción de un delito nunca repara el daño producido ’’

Louk Hulsman

 

El abolicionismo del sistema penal es un movimiento ideológico que se inserta como corriente dentro del pensamiento penal el cual promueve principalmente cambiar el actual sistema carcelario por otro más eficaz y acorde – según sus exponentes – con aquellos Derechos esenciales que emanan de la naturaleza humana.

Desde el ius naturalismo, sabemos que el hombre es libre, esencialmente libre, por lo que nadie podría estar de acuerdo en quitar las alas al hombre libre. El problema de este enunciado irrefutable es que no se pone en supuestos facticos, tan simplemente subsiste como enunciado universal.

¿Y si el hombre es un homicida? Para los exponentes del abolicionismo del sistema penal esto no tiene mayor significación, puesto que el hombre es libre y este paradigma es irrefutable sin importar lo que suceda en el vivir. El hombre es libre y debemos entender que esta malo encerrarlo y privarle de su libertad, así como de cualquiera de sus Derechos esenciales.

Otro punto interesante a estudiar es el de, en criminología llamado ‘’cifra negra’’ de los delitos, es decir, aquellos delitos nunca sancionados. Al respecto solo existen aproximaciones informales, algunos hablan inclusive de un 70% de delitos no sancionados, y de este treinta restante la gran mayoría son reincidentes, es decir, contamos con un sistema carcelario que siempre castiga a los mismos que además son una minoría dentro del verdadero espectro de los delitos, en palabras de Elías Neuman ‘’A la cárcel solo llegan los delincuentes fracasados.. Siempre son los mismos’’.

Dentro de este deprimente escenario hay que sumar que el sistema carcelario, en general, no cumple ninguno de los objetos de la pena, por ejemplo, no podemos hablar de retribución puesto que ningún muerto vuelve a la vida por la imposición de la pena; mucho menos de resociabilización debido a la sobrepoblación carcelaria y el entorno casi medieval de estas.

Entonces ¿Qué fin cumplen las cárceles? El fin de las cárceles no es otro que el de perfeccionamiento de delincuentes, son verdaderas fabricas delictuales que acentúan aún más el resentimiento, la discriminación y la brecha social entre ellos y el resto de la sociedad.

Es por esto y más que se plantea la posibilidad de restablecer el sistema de aplicación de penas puesto que a todas luces el vigente ha fracasado.

No obstante, y principalmente por el miedo que los medios de comunicación se encargan de transmitir a la ciudadanía respecto de la cuestión criminal pareciera casi un insulto para la nación proclamar algo así.

En nuestra opinión, debiera existir una transición, una política de enemigo por ejemplo, hasta lograr la evolución social necesaria para poder permitirnos un sistema abolicionista del actual modelo.

Siendo más sinceros aun, el hombre siempre debe plantearse lo inalcanzable y así seguir surgiendo más y más día a día, puesto que si nos planteamos lo alcanzable, una vez logrado nuestra vida quedara sin motor.

 

‘’La prisión es un instrumento de reclutamiento para el ejercito de delincuentes…

Fracasa porque fabrica delincuentes’’

Michel Foucault

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